Craters from Explosions or Impacts impacts usermanual usermanual
by theory theory
Keith A. Holsapple v 3.0
© 2003,2007,2015,2017 K. A. Holsapple
explosions Crater DataBase Crater DataBase

The Target:
Geology Type:

Gravity or Asteroid Size:

Here are suggested values for above choice, Choose "Other" to change:

Mass density:
Target Cohesion (lab scale):
Assumed Cohesion at this crater scale:
Friction Angle:
Porosity (%):

To Change Values select "Other":


That is the surface gravity of a km asteroid with the given density

The escape speed from that asteroid is m/s

To Change Values select "Other":


Note that the pressure effects are not known for most cases..

The Explosive:
Explosive Type:

Explosive Weight (Yield)
(or equiv TNT weight for Nuclear)

Depth of Burst
Plot PiV versus Pi2 for explosive weights

To Change Values select "Other":

Specific Energy:
Actual Diameter:
and the Energy is:
To Change select "Other":
+ means buried, scaled to tnt radius

DOB Value:

The Impactor:
Impactor Material:

To Change Values select "Choose":

Impactor Diameter

(or choose crater diameter below):


From Vertical:
Plot PiV (type below) versus Pi2 for a range of impactors

Impactor Density So the Mass is: and the Energy is:

The Excavation Crater Size is:
Show me the Profile:

Crater Diameter

(for impacts, can input this and solve for impactor)

Excavation Volume
Rim Diameter
Lip Height
Formation Time
Melt Mass
Vapor Mass
Excavation Mass same as Ejecta Mass below
And it is in the Cratering Regime
For this brittle material and defined gravity, craters are spall craters
if their excavation diameter as given above is less than meters
So the Final Crater is a Spall Crater, Its Size is:

(The values in the boxes above refer now to the central excavation pit crater)

Show me the Profile:
The Average Spall Diameter
Depth (same as excavation)
Spall Crater Volume
Ejecta Characteristics:

Ejecta Mass
The mass ejected with velocity greater than
Is percent of total, or:

But for that size asteroid, the escape velocity is: m/s
and % or kg of the ejecta escapes